History of Diplomatic Relations: 1909 – 1926

Diplomatic Relations Severed by the United States, 1909.

The United States severed diplomatic relations with Nicaragua on December 1, 1909, when Secretary of State Philander Chase Knox returned the passport of the Nicaraguan Chargé d’Affaires. Nicaraguan President José Santos Zelaya, facing an armed rebellion, had ordered the execution of U.S. citizens Leonard Croce and Lee Roy Cannon who had aided the revolutionaries lead by Liberal General Juan J. Estrada. U.S. Marines landed in Bluefields soon after the break of diplomatic relations. Zelaya resigned on December 17, 1909. The Marines remained stationed in Nicaragua until 1932, aside from a nine-month period in 1925-26.

Diplomatic Relations Re-established by the United States, 1911.

The United States re-established diplomatic relations with Nicaragua on February 21, 1911, when Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Elliot Northcott presented his credentials to the government of President Estrada.

Normal Relations Interrupted, 1926.

On October 25, 1925, General Emiliano Chamorro Vargas began insurgent operations in Managua against the government of Carlos José Solórzano. Charles C. Eberhardt, U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, immediately informed Chamorro that the United States would not recognize any government that assumed power by force. Chamorro claimed the Presidency on January 17, 1926 and failed to win U.S. recognition. On October 30, 1926, Chamorro deposited the presidency upon Senator Sebastián Uriza. The U.S. Department of State deemed the Uriza regime “merely a transition between the Chamorro regime and a government which can be recognized.”

Normal Relations Resumed, 1926.

A reconstituted Congress, including Senators and Deputies who had been expelled by General Chamorro, elected Adolfo Díaz as President Designate on November 11, 1926. Díaz took the oath of office on November 14. On November 17, the U.S. Chargé d’Affaires, Lawrence Dennis, delivered a note to the Nicaraguan Minister of Foreign Affairs extending U.S. recognition of the Díaz government.